๐Ÿ”ด Passion & Passivity: Four Films


๐Ÿ”ด Passion & Passivity

Jan 18, 2015

Crash, directed by David Cronenberg (1996).
sex, lies and videotape, directed by Steven Soderbergh (1990).
Bad influence, directed by Curtis Hanson (1990).
Secretary, directed by David Shainberg (2002).
I’ve been watching some James Spader films from the 1980s and 1990s (to fill the time until The Blacklist starts up again). My response has not been what I expected, especially to Crash, ‘sex, lies & videotape’ and also, Bad Influence and Secretary. This group seems to have a certain coherence, thematically. In all of these, I would say James Spader plays an innocent, even a sexual innocent. I am not saying he is sexually naive, but rather is caught up in situations in which sexuality is an externalized, even emasculating force with which he is trying to cope. In both Crash & sex, lies & videotape, he struggles with impotence; also in both of these, he is just gorgeous, almost feminized at times. He is, in both, more the subject of seduction than its perpetrator. In key scenes in each the camera lingers on his wavy blonde hair and handsome face.

In both Crash and ‘sex, lies & videotape,’ we can (I think), assume that he is restored in the end to his sexuality and full humanness.

Crash, directed by David Cronenberg (1996). James Spader and Deborah Kara Unger.

Crash, directed by David Cronenberg (1996). James Spader and Deborah Kara Unger.

In the 1996 film Crash (directed by David Cronenberg), Spader’s character, James, seems likely to be a potential survivor as it appears he will eventually perpetrate the car crash death of his unnervingly narcissistic movie star wife (played by Deborah Kara Unger). “Maybe the next one, darling, maybe the next one,” is the last line of the movie. He is suggesting that the next time he drives his wife off the road (as he just did), it will result in her death. This line is identical to the first line of the movie, spoken by his wife to him when he fails to achieve an erection. Am I the only one who hears in his final line the first hint of assertiveness and irony in his voice in that entire movie?

Throughout the movie, James is tricked and enticed into sexual relationships by three other characters (one male, two female). These encounters are then recalled, honored or replayed with his wife, apparently to little actual sexual satisfaction for either of them, though the cutaways do leave some doubt. Let me mention, this is a very surreal movie and I may be projecting more into it that is warranted. The movie itself is seductive, moody, bleak and disorienting, as it creates the sense of a world in which humans are passive objects, subordinated to and hurled about by powerful technological forces. Crash is a dance with Death, literally. Human flesh and human nature are pitted against technology, raw force and the cutting edge of jagged steel. The visual juxtaposition of sensitive, living tissue punctured and traumatized by metal is recurring and terrifying. Not for the squeamish, mind you.

‘Sex, lies & videotape’ (directed by Peter Soderbergh, 1989) presages The Blacklist (and to a lesser extent, Boston Legal) in its attention to the layers of deceit we are surrounded by and how confusing, misleading and disorienting this can be. Graham, a young man in his late 20s, returns home, to a sultry town in the South after nine years on the road, to visit an old ‘friend’ and potentially to reconnect with an old love. Graham & lawyer John (Peter Gallagher) do not hit it off well at all, with Graham indicating early on in the presence on John’s wife Ann (Andie MacDowell) that the two worst things in the world are “lies” and “lawyers.”John is having an affair with his wife Ann’s “extroverted” sister, Cynthia (Laura San Giacomo). Ann is in therapy with a range of concerns but it quickly becomes clear that sex with her husband does not include orgasm for her.
Ann and Graham quickly discover each other to be acutely self-conscious and introverted individuals. Graham quickly divulges to Ann that he can’t achieve an erection in the “presence of other people,” and soon thereafter lets her know that the video camera and videotape collection that are his “personal project” involve his interviewing women whom he has encountered on road trips crisscrossing the country. The interviews are about the women’s sexual experiences; he later watches them to masturbate to. (In Crash, btw, Spader’s character also makes films, as a director.)
Ann tells Cynthia about Graham’s “strange” project and Cynthia gamely (and to taunt her up-tight sister) drops in on Graham and lets him videotape her, and even masturbates for the camera. She then promptly tells both Ann and John about it (separately).When Ann finds one of Cynthia’s earrings in her bedroom, confirming her intuition that John and Cynthia are having an affair, she also visits Graham. She asks him to videotape her, too. She admits to having thought about having sex with him. He admits to fantasizing about what she “would look like having an orgasm.”
sex, lies and videotape, directed by Steven Soderbergh (1990). Andie MacDowell and James Spader.

sex, lies and videotape, directed by Steven Soderbergh (1990). Andie MacDowell and James Spader.


Ann ย confronts Graham saying that he is having an impact on all of their lives, that he cannot be a mere passive observer (of sex, ergo life), to which he claims he has tried to “structure his life” to have as little impact as possible, by expressing his feelings verbally instead of by actions, and by always being honest. His passivity extends to his resisting constructing any sort of narrative for his life, apparently in the hope of avoiding the lies implicit in having such a story. Instead, he has wandered across the country in his car and been a passive observer by making his videotapes. He chides Ann for daring him to leave his withdrawn state by asking him to justify his life for her:

What am I supposed to do? Am I supposed to recount all the points in my life leading up to this moment, and then hope that itโ€™s coherent; that it makes some sort of sense to you? It doesnโ€™t make any sense to me. You know, I was there. And I donโ€™t have the slightest idea who I am. And Iโ€™m supposed to be able to explain it to youโ€ฆ?

In the script but not the film is a heart-breaking passage [I don’t know why they left this out; but skip the quote below if you don’t want to have your sense of the film affected by it, because it makes a difference]:

God, Ann, when you’re with another person, and you’reโ€ฆinside them, you’re so vulnerable, you’re revealing so much… there’s no protection. And…somebody could say, or do something to you while you re in this…state of…nakedness. And they could hurt you without even knowing it. In a way that you couldn’t even see. (looks at Ann) And you would withdraw. To make sure it didn’t happen again.

Then, in a poignant and beautiful scene, Ann touches Graham’s face and he lifts his hand to her face in response. Those wavy blonde locks again… The description in the script captures and goes well beyond what the film alone reveals:

ANN: I want to touch you.

Graham shakes his head.

ANN: I want to touch you.


Ann reaches out, and Graham instinctively begins to move away.

ANN: Graham.

Something in her voice makes him stop. Their eyes lock. Graham slowly moves back toward her. Ann’s hand eases out to him, her eyes still burning into his. Graham closes his eyes, accepting Ann’s touch. She caresses him. Slowlyโ€ฆ Delicatelyโ€ฆ She touches his arms, his face, his hair. Closing her eyes, she takes his hand and puts it against her face. She begins to lie him back on the couch. When he offers light resistance, she gently persists.

ANN: Keep your eyes closed.

Graham lies back, silently obeying. Ann touches his face. Gradually, her hand slips to his neck and she begins to unbutton his shirt. She watches his face, hoping that he will remain calm. He does. She rubs her hand on his chest. Once again she brings Graham’s hand to her face. She moves his hand to her neck and throat, painting her skin with his fingers. Soon each hand is exploring the other. Fingers search for and find hidden areas.

Ann stands. Their hands remain together, and Graham’s eyes remain closed. Ann moves onto the couch with Graham. She gently lowers herself into a sitting position on [sic] his waist. She slowly moves both of her hands onto Graham’s chest. They move forward and back, like a lazy tide. She looks at Graham. His face is tranquil.

Ann quietly begins to move her face toward his. Soon she is hovering inches above him, her long hair touching his features. She lowers her lips to his forehead and kisses him. She waits for a negative reaction. Getting none, she moves lower and kisses his eyes. Still receiving no discouragement, she moves to his nose. A subtle movement from Graham. Ann waits for a moment. She then moves to his lips, her luxuriant tresses enveloping his face. She kisses him lightly. She kisses him again.

Graham tilts his head back and she softly kisses his neck. Graham’s hands make their way up Ann’s back until they have reached her neck. He slowly pulls his face to hers. He kisses her.

Graham is flooded with warmth and excitement. He caresses her, intoxicating himself with physical contact. The kisses become more meaningful, and the touching becomes more passionate. For a moment, Graham seems about to evaporate in a state of ecstasy, his eyes filled with relief and happiness.

But his gaze happens to fall on the video camera, which continues to record. Graham seizes up and abruptly backs away from Ann’s embrace. Reality slowly envelopes him.

ANN: Graham…

GRAHAM: I’m okay. It’s okay.

Ann reaches for his hand. He allows her to take it.

GRAHAM (almost dazed) It’s okay.

Graham looks at Ann for a long moment. She sees the acceptance and gratitude in his eyes. She smiles lightly. Graham moves forward and shuts off the camera.

[I hope I am not reversing some important creative decision to exclude some of this material from the film. If nothing else, it seems a shame for people not to have the opportunity to taste this delicious writing.]

"The star of our show" โ€“ and perhaps our livesโ€ฆ

“Star of the Show” โ€“ and perhaps our livesโ€ฆ

Meanwhile, Cynthia has confessed to John about her interview with Graham, upsetting him. He becomes even more upset later when Ann tells him she wants a divorce. When he finds out that Ann too had an interview with Graham, he barges out of the door goes to Graham’s house, smashes him in the face and throws him out of his house, locking the door. Graham remains huddled outside the door, blood oozing from his mouth. John then finds the tape of Ann and plays it, reacting with anger, shame and hurt. It recorded much of the intimacy of Ann & Graham’s chemistry, their insightful challenges to one another and their physical encounter.

Leaving the house, John triumphantly tells Graham that he had had sex with Graham’s girl nine years earlier. Had Graham already guessed this? Is this why he showed up in John’s life? Graham goes inside and smashes all his videotapes and his recorder.

Returning to his office, John finds that he has lost his big client, the result of too many cancelled appointments to see Cynthia. His life is in a shambles. Ann visits Graham; they exchange affection and pleasantries on the stoop as it begins to rain.


Somewhat like Secretary (the 2002 film directed by Steven Shainberg), ‘sex, lies and videotape’ is a well structured morality tale in which the nice guy (Graham) finally gets the girl. Having lost his girl โ€“ and his virility โ€“ to John nine years earlier, Graham is now the victor (despite his bruises), and the black “funeral” shirt he was wearing when he first showed up โ€“ which John had mocked (in the film version only) โ€“ turns out to have been for John’s life of lies.Similar to Crash, there is only an inkling of a more active, fulfilled life ahead for Graham, but I think that’s where both films leave us.

Non-engagement in life is not an option. We are engaged. Passivity and impotence โ€“ being a victim, a spectator, a non-actor โ€“ is not only unrewarding; it is impossible. Graham has never actually escaped sexuality/action. Rather he has “split” into viewer vs viewed. But as Ann has let him know, even his intentional honesty and passivity have caused the stresses already inherent in the world he has entered to bulge, buckle and rip apart.

In ‘sex, lies, & videotape,’ Crash, Secretary, & Bad Influence, there is in fact, no way out from being involved. We are observers, yes, and others are watching us but that is no argument for passivity. Choosing, therefore, to act thoughtfully, engagedly and โ€“ yes, with love and commitment โ€“ is not only the only way forward, it is the most empowering and rewarding. For better or worse, we live in the context of our times, times in which action is often forsaken for passive viewership, a propensity we must either confront or somehow transform.

Having left her wedding to tell Edward she loves him, he responds, "I'm sorry but I don't believe it to be true." "But it IS true." (Secretary, directed by David Shainberg (2002). James Spader and Maggie Gyllenhaal.)

Having left her wedding to tell Edward she loves him, he responds, “I’m sorry but I don’t believe it to be true.” “But it IS true.” (Secretary, directed by David Shainberg (2002). James Spader and Maggie Gyllenhaal.)

There are echoes here of another Spader film, Secretary, in which Mr Grey, perhaps physically abused as a child, finds actual affection alarming and prefers less intimate forms of sexuality instead. In the end, thanks to the devotion of his secretary, Lee, played by Maggie Gyllenhaal (whose submissions reminded me of the tribulations of the Saints I learned about in Catechism class growing up Catholic), it seems things may work out for Mr Grey who eventually comes to accept that that he is loved and can “love back.”

Bad Influence, directed by Curtis Hanson (1990). James Spader, Lisa Zane an,d Rob Lowe.

Bad Influence, directed by Curtis Hanson (1990). Rob Lowe, Lisa Zane and James Spader.

These are all morality plays, with Bad Influence (directed by Curtis Hanson, 1990) being a perfectly structured Faustian tale in which the hero makes the right choice in the end. In this, it reflects Secretary (and, hopefully, the other two films with less explicit endings.). Bad Influence also involves the clandestine videotaping of James Spader’s character, Michael Boll, having sex with a girl he just met by Michael’s mysterious new friend Alex (Rob Lowe). Alex then invites himself to Michael’s engagement party, and to Michael’s shock and embarrassment, plays the tape to the assembled guests โ€“ since Michael had indicated he wished he could get out of the wedding. Subsequent wishes Michael has expressed also end up being granted, as Michael becomes more and more dependent on Alex through apparent complicity in his crimes. As I said: Faustian. Except for the sex, you could almost play this film for that Catechism class I mentioned earlier. Michael “does things” but by passively allowing himself to be led “into temptation,” by not acting intentionally, he fails to act freely.


In all of these “morality tales”, the “moral” is: we are all involved in history whether we want to be or not. Not-doing is doing. And doing โ€“ acting intentionally โ€“ involves a having a perspective on the past and a plan for the future. With history comes choice and the possibly of failure (tragedy) but also the possibility of success and joy, of connection with others however tenuous and momentary (comedy). Yes, there is manipulation, betrayal and evil in the world, but withdrawing from it is not a possible alternative; it is the avoidance of freedom. Better to take on the manipulators, betrayors and evil-doers, This is the context into which we are born and in which we suffer, confront, renew, rejoice, die. As Camus argued, we must “imagine Sisyphus happy.”

I leave Sisyphus at the foot of the mountain. One always finds one’s burden again. But Sisyphus teaches the higher fidelity that negates the gods and raises rocks. He too concludes that all is well. This universe henceforth without a master seems to him neither sterile nor futile. Each atom of that stone, each mineral flake of that night-filled mountain, in itself, forms a world. The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy.

In short, stop being a wuss.

Passivity. James Spader with Andie MacDowell in sex, lies & videotape, with Susan Sarandon in White Castle, with Debra Kara Unger in Crash (having sex with another man as her husband drives), and with Maggie Gyllenhaal in Secretary

Passivity. James Spader with Andie MacDowell in sex, lies & videotape, with Susan Sarandon in White Castle, with Debra Kara Unger in Crash (having sex with another man as her husband drives), and with Maggie Gyllenhaal in Secretary

The archetype for all these characters may be found in Tennessee Williams’ great play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. At the end of that play, the heroine, Maggie “the Cat” locks her husband’s liquor away to force him to have sex with her. She justifies this so:

Oh, you weak, beautiful people who give up with such grace. What you need is someone to take hold of you โ€“ gently, with love, and hand your life back to you, like something gold you let go of โ€“ and I can! I’m determined to do it–and nothing’s more determined than a cat on a tin roof โ€“ is there?

The last thing you might expect might be someone (me) suggesting that these four James Spader films that are reputed to be notoriously sexual, are truly about the impossibility of choosing powerlessness in life (with sex being used as a metaphor for action). Time has been kind to these films. Once considered avant-garde at best, scandalous at worst, they are now considered at simply “quirky.” All represent passivity or “watching” as our age’s increasingly predominant form of interpersonal (and political) engagement (or, perhaps more accurately: disengagement). In this, all of these films were decidedly prescient.


1 Response to “๐Ÿ”ด Passion & Passivity: Four Films”

Leave a Reply

โ™ค A Blog about the NBC Series

This slideshow requires JavaScript.


๐Ÿ”ดโ™คโ™ค ALL Blacklist Scripts โฌ…๎Š
๐Ÿ”ดโ™คโ™ค ALL Blacklist Songs โฌ…๎Š
๐Ÿ”ด Blacklisters & Bad Guys ๎Š
เผบ โ™ค โŠฑโœจเผปเผบโœจโŠฐ โ™ค เผป
๐Ÿ”ด S1 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S2 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S3 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S4 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S5 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S6 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S7 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S8 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S9 Easy-Search Scripts
๐Ÿ”ด S10 Easy-Search Scripts ๎Š
เผบ โ™ค โŠฑโœจเผปเผบโœจโŠฐ โ™ค เผป
๐Ÿ”ด Season 1 Highlights ๐Ÿฟ
๐Ÿ”ด Season 2 Highlights ๐Ÿฟ
๐Ÿ”ด Season 3 Storybook ๐Ÿ“—
๐Ÿ”ด Season 4 Storybook ๐Ÿ“—
๐Ÿ”ด Season 5 Storybook ๐Ÿ“—(15 secs load)
๐Ÿ”ด Twitter Episode Threads S1-6 ๐Ÿงต
๐Ÿ”ด Season 6 Photo Gallery ๐Ÿ–ผ
๐Ÿ”ด Season 7 Photo Gallery ๐Ÿ–ผ
๐Ÿ”ด Season 8 Photo Gallery ๐Ÿ–ผ
๐Ÿ”ด Season 9 Photo Gallery ๐Ÿ–ผ ๎Š
๐Ÿ”ด Season 10 Photo Gallery ๐Ÿ–ผ
เผบ โ™ค โŠฑโœจเผปเผบโœจโŠฐ โ™ค เผป
๐Ÿ”ด ๐Ÿงฉ TAG/PHRASE INDEX (Scripts) โœณ๏ธ๎Š
๐Ÿ”ด ๐ŸŽน Clickable TAG INDEX (Songs)
๐Ÿ”ด ๐Ÿ”ฆ Search Assistance (w Lists)
เผบ โ™ค โŠฑโœจเผปเผบโœจโŠฐ โ™ค เผป
๐Ÿ”ด ๐Ÿ”ฅ Red Hot ๐Ÿ”ฅ Fan Fiction ๎Š
๐Ÿ”ด ๐Ÿ”ฅ Red Hot ๐Ÿ”ฅ Spader Pics (w โ™ซ) ๎Š
๐Ÿ”ด ‘Dramatus Interruptus’ (Poetics)
๐Ÿ”ด Fathomless Eyes (“Love Gene”)
๐Ÿ”ด For The Love Of Lizzington
๐Ÿ”ด James Spader As Outsider
๐Ÿ”ด Passion & Passivity: Four Spader Films
๐Ÿ”ด What Is “The Cabal”?
๐Ÿ”ด Archive of All ARTICLES

Blacklist Exposed Player

(Then open a new tab for BlacklistDCd. Donโ€™t use back button)

Blog Stats

  • 1,756,584 hits

Google Site Searchโ€ผ๏ธ๎Š

Google Translate

Thank you, everyone โ™กโ™คโ™ก

๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉ ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พ ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผ ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌ ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฒ ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ผ

blog posts (๎Š = updated)

โ™ค Blog Structure (๎Š= update)

[๎ŠClick๎Što Enlarge ]