28
Dec
14

๐Ÿ”ด James Spader as Outsider

 

๐Ÿ”ด James Spader as Outsider

โ€“โ€“ Boston Legal to The Blacklist

 
Jan 7, 2015
 
In Boston Legal (ABC, 2004-2008), James Spader played Alan Shore, an often politically incorrect advocate in many cases involving “lost causes” (most of which, in the make-believe world of the Crane, Poole & Schmidt law firm, he actually won). His penchant for clarity and honesty was his weakness & his strength. In perhaps the most memorable episode, he even told “The Court Supreme” exactly what they needed to hear about the death penalty. Even his sexism was funny & endearing because it was โ€“ hey! โ€“ sincere. During the Bush years, Alan Shore’s truth-telling buoyed many a despondent liberal in the face of what Stephen Colbert dubbed “Truthiness”.

The character Jerry Espenson (played by Christian Clemenson) once told Alan Shore:Alan, I’m like a human polygraph: I can sense the truth…. It’s one of the reasons I so implicitly and immediately trusted you. I was drawn to your honesty. [Boston Legal 3:9 Over the Ledge http://bit.ly/1wN7Y1F p.7]And in one of my favorite scenes:

Atty Melvin Palmer [an obnoxious Texas glad-hander played by Christopher Ruch], to Alan: My friend โ€“

Alan Shore: I am NOT your friend. I find the possibility of such a friendship vile. Your best hope Mr Milk [the defendent] is that the first subprime lawsuit is brought against you by a buffoon like Mr Palmer. You do not want the precedent set by me because I will get you. Search my eyes, Mr Milk. This is what the truth looks like. [Boston Legal, 4:10 Green Christmas http://bit.ly/1wGF8gS p.10]

James Spader as Alan Shore in Boston Legal

James Spader as Alan Shore in Boston Legal

The casually condescending, self-assured clarity of Alan Shore’s gaze is a far cry from the trips down the rabbit hole that Red Reddington takes us on, as he peels back one layer after another of dissimulation (even while constructing new ones) in a seemingly endless and relentless drive to โ€“ what? discover some more greater truth? Or is he just playing with Elizabeth Keen, the young FBI profiler (played by Megan Boone) for whom he has an unexplained and tenacious fascination and apparent affection?

The Blacklist is about secrets, lies, and deceit. In the upside down world which Reddington has lived in for 24 years, telling the truth can get you killed, as Wujing would have killed Liz (Wujing 1:3) or as Donald Ressler (Diego Klattenhoff) found out when Red introduced him to Hector Lorca as an FBI Agent (The Stewmaker 1:4). Unlike Alan Shore, Reddington is mysterious of necessity. He tells Liz that revealing the truth about her biological father would put her in danger (even though he’s already put her life in danger more than once). (Berlin-2 1:22)

James Spader as Red Reddington in The Blacklist

James Spader as Red Reddington in The Blacklist

Red’s gaze is different from Alan Shore’s: it inscrutable, or, as I suggested before, fathomless http://bit.ly/13lrXbc. Red has been to the dark side. He cautions Ressler against taking the path he himself has taken: “Once you cross over, there are things in the darkness that can keep your heart from ever feeling the light again.” (Mako Tanida 1:16). And memorably, Red says to Alan Fitch (Alan Alda), US government operative and participant in a shady international cabal:

[A]s bad as you may think I am, as far as you think I’m willing to go to protect that which I hold most dear, you can’t possibly fathom how deep that well of mine truly goes. You think you’ve come here simply to say that you can’t help me, but all you’ve done is ensure that when this is all over, I won’t be able to help you. (The Kingmaker 1:20)

Red Reddington is a character of duplicity and intrigue. Although he tells Liz (Megan Boone) that he will never lie to her, he has also told her, “I’m a criminal; criminals are notorious liars,” and that “everything about me is a lie” (1:1 Pilot). In the next episode he asks her, “What if I were to tell you that everything you have come to believe about yourself is a lie.” (The Freelancer 1:2) The double negatives alone can induce vertigo.

Red suggests to Liz as they enter a restaurant with him undercover in episode 1:2 (The Freelancer) “You can be my girlfriend from Ann Arbor.” When she objects, he says “Then you can be my daughter” โ€“ teasing the question at the heart of reams of Lizzington fanfiction http://bit.ly/13MSpus. Just keeping straight all the aliases in this show requires a spreadsheet. “We never really know anyone, do we?” Red remarks to Liz at the end of The Freelancer. Red has cut Liz โ€“ and us โ€“ free from out moorings. From now on, all the pieces are all in play.

The writing for The Blacklist verges on Shakespearean at times and it is impossible to imagine a better actor to deliver it than Spader. The idea that Kiefer Sutherland or Kevin Spacey could ever have delivered these lines with such depth, playfulness, mystery and emotion seems preposterous now. James Spader IS Red Reddington. But the question remains โ€“ who is Red? And what’s so special about Liz?

I for one want no quick or easy answers to such questions. I want this series to last for a decade like Mad Men. But that’s in part because I want it, like Boston Legal, to explore every moral and social issue that we face, to:

…make mad the guilty and appall the free,
Confound the ignorant, and amaze indeed
The very faculties of eyes and ears.
โ€“ Hamlet (Act 2, Scene 2)

If Red is in the end a mere psychopath, I have no use for this series, and will feel I have been played. I want it to be like Boston Legal. In other words, topical, touching on the pressing matters of our times. The show is perfectly positioned for this as the next decade or so is likely to be driven by international issues. The potential here is huge.

Granted, The Blacklist has already tried to do this, though at times #FAILingly. It has glibly presented Occupy Wall Street as an envy game (nope, sorry; see: Thomas Piketty), portrayed environmentalists as wanting to wipe out the human species [!], and presented medical researchers as as loners and hacks (hey, some of my best friends are medical researchers!) But other topics have been right on: Big Data, mind control through genetic profiling, sex trafficking, organ harvesting, animal poaching, suicide bombings. The episode on the Apophys strain virus came out just as the Ebola panic was at its height (The Front 2:5). In addressing contemporary issues, The Blacklist seems to have taken a turn in the direction of Boston Legal, though reinterpreted for a darker, more cynical decade, one in which, constantly surveilled, we all feel like โ€“ and must learn to think like โ€“ criminals, to take nothing at face value, and to “trust, but verify” in the best of circumstances; at worst, to trust no one, ever.

In the final episode before the long 10-week long break, “The Decembrist,” (2:8) the series returned to its interpersonal themes of father/daughter/mentor/husband โ€“ and to the international themes it had touched upon earlier. Can Red continue to “move seamlessly” about the world with Fitch (now killed by Berlin) no longer keeping the Alliance at bay, or will he need to take sides as the fateful year of 2017 draws near? “Jasper,” another member of the cabal who purportedly “sides with the Chinese” is likely to become Red’s new nemesis. Berlin (Peter Stormare) is dead, but what of his henchmen? In a word, what of the Russians? ISIS has yet to make an appearance, but The Blacklist cannot ignore it for long. “The Syrians” have worked as a stand-in to date. Most of all, I’m hoping the series does not shy away from the great issues implied by the very idea of such an international syndicate with operatives pulling strings at the top levels of all major, supposedly-sovereign powers (as I described here http://bit.ly/1x6dtZT and here http://bit.ly/12ySgdB).

เผบโœฆโŒ˜โœฆเผป

Both Alan Shore and Red Reddington are outsiders. Alan had left his last two jobs under unhappy circumstances, accused of embezzlement at the first, fired from the most recent (after which he took the firm to court and won). At Crane, Schmidt and Poole, he is ever walking a fine line ethically, though often in the name of some larger moral purpose (or personal prerogative). His chances of ever becoming partner are remote and it is not something he even pursues. At once point, he reacts to a younger lawyer trying to pull rank on him, by saying sarcastically, “And I’m such a slut for authority.” He is at the firm largely because Denny Crane likes him, in fact loves him, in every way other than sexual.

Red Reddington is, of course, the archetypal exile, a man without a country โ€“ the ultimate outsider. We do not know, yet, if he is a actually a traitor, or if he too was compelled by a larger moral compulsion or by a vendetta. Jon Bokenkamp has made clear that Red is not to be thought of as an immoral man.

โ€œWe have a lot of conversations, John [Eisendrath] and I and then with James [Spader] as well, about where would Red draw the line? What is his view about good and evil, right and wrong? And I think heโ€™s very determined that the character is not a psychopath. Heโ€™s not someone who has no sense of right and wrong. I think in viewing him with a sense of right and wrong really protects his character from just becoming evil. And I think heโ€™s very aware of that and that is another thing I think that perspective is something I think he has helped to bring.โ€ย http://bit.ly/1wRn9pX

‘The Exile’ has been a driving intellectual force in the West, especially in America, whose universities were inseminated after World War II by รฉmigrรฉs from Europe. They are, in fact, largely responsible for the creation of postmodernism. Edward Said, who developed the notion of post-colonialism, here quotes Hugh of St Victor, a 12th Century monk from Saxony:

The man who finds his homeland sweet is still a practiced beginner; he to whom every soil is as his native one is already strong; but he is perfect to whom the whole world is as a foreign land. The tender soul has fixed his love on one spot in the world; the strong man has extended his love to all places; but the perfect man has extinguished his. http://bit.ly/1wPRmWw

The Pope has said we are may be on the cusp of World War III http://bit.ly/1x93mSQ. ISIS has rekindled talk of a clash of civilizations, that notion, coined by and popularized by Samuel Huntington in the early 1990s http://fam.ag/1HNrxYt and revived by in early years post-9/11 http://bit.ly/1462unc. Both the President http://1.usa.gov/1HOBIMv and the Vatican http://bit.ly/1zHOJIl quickly disavowed this language, but we cannot know what is said behind closed doors. Likely, coming conflicts are to be waged economically on the one hand, and by terror and mass surveillance on the other. But whatever-this-is, this conflict, will last a generation, if not a century, we have been told http://bit.ly/1H5SmIQ.

You can find discussions of such matters in back pages of The Economist and Foreign Affairs, though they are muted or ignored by the New York Times and the Washington Post, for fear, perhaps, of alarming the populace, or of creating a backlash? For a bevy of mostly well-intentioned reasons, the public is sheltered from the realities of a rising China, a populist Russia with legitimate beefs with the West, or the potential for a unified pan-Sunni insurgency, perhaps for fear that such awarenesses will sully the innocence of our postmodern openness to other cultures. Yet thinking begins with clarity and proceeds through dialectic. And action (and reaction) are impossible without an understanding of who we are, whoever “we” may be.

In the years of the Bush Administration, Boston Legal highlighted issues that were often under the radar, clarified them morally and exerted pressure on the national consciousness. Can we ever know the impact that this show had on public attitudes toward homosexuality, euthanasia, the pharmaceutical industry, the death penalty? Certainly it was substantial.

Alan Shore and Red Reddington explaining.

Alan Shore and Red Reddington explaining.

Similarly a bevy of issues is simmering now, mainly international, that The Blacklist is positioned to address. For the most part (save the climate issue), these are not issues the Americans people disagree about: democracy vs theocracy, money in politics, free-market capitalism vs state-run capitalism and currency manipulation, a free press and Internet vs government-run, trade agreements, or basic human rights vs female circumcision, sex trafficking, denying education to girls etc. And The Blacklist has addressed several of them, for example, human sex trafficking in The Freelancer (1:2) and animal poaching in The Mombasa Cartel (2:6). Further, it is steeped in Cold War mythology. Red went missing, after all, just as the Soviet Union was coming apart.

Like the national issues highlighted by Boston Legal, these international issues are muddled and vague in the public consciousness, just waiting for elucidation. Are these themes are too abstract for tv? Concretize them. I love the notion of the “Alliance” running a dark-horse candidate for President in 2016, to take office in the fateful year of 2017. Think of the possibilities!

I admit I want Red to be heroic, even if he is a reluctant or flawed hero. Tragedy I can tolerate. Dystopia, I cannot.

We do not need to understand Red, we do not need to admire him, but we do need to trust him, as he frequently asks Liz to do. The audience, like Liz, needs a guide and mentor to navigate these treacherous times. Some Millennials take the view that shows like Game of Thrones and Breaking Bad (both of which I gave up on) are ‘how it is’ precisely because they offer no unflawed perspective or admirable characters. “That’s how it is.” Good Lord, is this what postmodernism has brought us to?

James Spader has said that the idea of Red being on a path of redemption would be “disappointing” http://bit.ly/1vVlaSN. Was Alan Shore on a path of redemption? Of course not: the society he lived in was not morally in a position to judge him. Plus, he was having way too much fun. Is this similar to how Spader views Reddington? He has said that “in a way, I was looking for him” http://huff.to/1xS3zpH. Red frequently ridicules the ineffectiveness of the FBI’s methods, the inability of Asst Dir Harold Cooper (played by Harry Lennix) to see outside the box, to play “the long game” โ€“ to see all the moving pieces.

Red is the very picture of Edward Said’s “exile,” the individual who sees the world ‘contrapuntally’ โ€“ from more than one perspective simultaneously:

Hugo [of St Victor] twice makes it clear that the ‘strong’ or ‘perfect’ man achieves independence or detachment by working through attachments; not by rejecting them…. Exile is predicated on the existence of, love for, and bond with, one’s native place; what is true of all exile is not that home and love of home are lost; but that loss is inherent in the very existence of both.

Regard experiences as if they are about to disappear. What is it that anchors them in reality? What would you save of them? Only someone who has achieved independence and detachment, someone whose homeland is ‘sweet’ but whose circumstances make it impossible to recapture this sweetness can answer these questions. (Such a person would also find it impossible to derive satisfaction from substitutes furnished by illusion or dogma.)

The exile knows that in a secular and contingent world, homes are always provisional. Borders and barriers, which enclose us within the safety of familiar places, can also become prisons… Exiles cross borders, break barriers of thought and experience…

There is also a particular sense of achievement in acting as if one were at home wherever one happens to be.” http://bit.ly/1wPRmWw

Compared to Alan Shore, Red Reddington is the ‘outsider’s outsider’ the true exile who is more at home in the world at large than in the country of his birth. As such, he can be the perfect guide to help us perceive the pitfalls and treachery of political, economic and ideological realities on a global scale. Like Alan Shore, Red Reddington operates outside the conventions of local morality and action. But Red’s sandbox is much larger: it encompasses the world.

The Blacklist can always opt for the ‘bad guy/badder guy’ formula, sticking with the bread-and-circus scenario of a “Batman a week” http://bit.ly/1vVlaSN. I hope Jon Bokenkamp was referring only to the action and pacing of the recent Batman movies when he turned this phrase. It’s a fine line to walk between the unusual but plausible and the fantastic impossible.

If the creative staff chooses, The Blacklist can do for international issues what Boston Legal did for national ones: pierce through the manipulation, secrecy and denial, and articulate and clarify the challenges, choices and yes even Truths that our governments, corporations and media can find every reason to obfuscate.

เผบโœฆโŒ˜โœฆเผป

 

Source Bibliography with Excerpts
TheNationalInterest, John Mearsheimer: Can China Rise Peacefully? http://bit.ly/1viBhD7
// 10/25/2014, final chapter from “The Tragedy of the Great Power Politics”

“The rise of China appears to be changing this situation, however, because this development has the potential to fundamentally alter the architecture of the international system. If the Chinese economy continues growing at a brisk clip in the next few decades, the United States will once again face a potential peer competitor, and great-power politics will return in full force.”
TheIntercept: Key Democrats, Led by Hillary Clinton, Leave No doubt that Endless War is Official Doctrine http://bit.ly/1H5SmIQ
// 10/7/2014
VaticanInsider: Parolin at the UN: It is wrong to think in terms of a โ€œclash of civilizationsโ€ http://bit.ly/1zHOJIl
// 10/1/2014, Cardinal Pietro Parolin, Secy of State for the Vatican “spoke about a ‘new form of terrorismโ€ which is a phenomenton of globalisation. ‘We are seeing a totally new phenomenon,’ Parolin said. This should not be seen so much as a disease that is common in certain human environments, but rather, in terms of its global dimension. It is no longer countries or political groups that are using terrorism as an instrument, the Vatican Secretary of State said, referring implicitly to the Islamic Stateโ€™s jihadists. For the first time ever, it is a terrorist organization that is ‘threatening all States, vowing to dissolve them and to replace them with a pseudo-religious world government.’ It uses global communication tools to recruit proselytes, ‘attracting from around the world young people who are often disillusioned by a widespread indifference and a dearth of values in wealthier societies.'”
“After the September 11 attacks, Parolin told the UN, ‘some media and ‘think tanks’ oversimplified that tragic moment by interpreting all subsequent and problematic situations in terms of a clash of civilizations. This view ignored longstanding and profound experiences of good relations between cultures, ethnic groups and religions, and interpreted through this lens other complex situations such as the Middle Eastern question and those civil conflicts presently occurring elsewhere.’ ‘At times, unilateral solutions have been favoured over those grounded in international law.’
‘The methods adopted, likewise, have not always respected the established order or particular cultural circumstances of peoples.’ The clash of civilisations mindset ‘play[ed] on existing fears and prejudices,’ leading ‘to reactions of a xenophobic nature that, paradoxically, then serve to reinforce the very sentiments at the heart of terrorism itself.'”
“‘A financial system governed only by speculation and the maximization of profits, or one in which individual persons are regarded as disposable items in a culture of waste, could be tantamount, in certain circumstances, to an offence against human dignity. It follows, therefore, that the UN and its member states have an urgent and grave responsibility for the poor and excluded, mindful always that social and economic justice is an essential condition for peace.”
Pres. Obama to United Nations: So we reject any suggestion of a clash of civilizations http://1.usa.gov/1HOBIMv
// 9/24/2014 “We have reaffirmed again and again that the United States is not and never will be at war with Islam. Islam teaches peace. Muslims the world over aspire to live with dignity and a sense of justice. And when it comes to America and Islam, there is no us and them, there is only us — because millions of Muslim Americans are part of the fabric of our country.”
“So we reject any suggestion of a clash of civilizations. Belief in permanent religious war is the misguided refuge of extremists who cannot build or create anything, and therefore peddle only fanaticism and hate. And it is no exaggeration to say that humanityโ€™s future depends on us uniting against those who would divide us along the fault lines of tribe or sect, race or religion.”
MiddleEastMonitor, Lamis Andoni: ISIS and the ‘clash of the civilisations’ http://bit.ly/1462unc
// 9/16/2014, “If we listen carefully to what the Islamic State (ISIS) and its supporters are saying, we see a vision of the world in a state of ongoing war between the West and Islam. The essence of this war is religion, not colonial policies, as if colonialism has never targeted any other non-Muslim nations and Christians as well. We find a distorted promotion of the saying ‘clash of the civilisations’, although it ultimately serves military intervention in the region.”
“The ‘clash of the civilisations’ is an orientalist theory that views the clash of the Arab and Islamic worlds with the Western civilisation as an inevitable result of the ‘civilisation’ gap between the two sides; the ‘civilised and high-class’ West and the ‘barbaric’ East. It uses this distorted logic to justify America’s colonial wars, including the war on terrorism, the bombing of Afghanistan, the invasion of Iraq, and everything in between.”
“The orientalist historian Bernard Lewis first coined the term ‘clash of Civilisations’ to prove that there is no existence of an Arab world, but a group of sects or factions, while Israel has the features and characteristics of a state, and therefore, the Arab world can be dissolved. He was followed by Samuel Huntington, who used the term as the title to his book in which he states that there will be an ongoing clash between the West and Islam in the future.”
“The goal was to find a new enemy to replace communism in order to justify America’s domination and the arms industry and dealers after the fall of the Soviet Union. The ‘clash of civilisations’ has now become part of the official Western psychology, and a part of the American people and army’s incitement as a part of undermining the humanity of the nations targeted by American wars.”
ZeroHedge: “World War III May Have Already Begun”, ย Pope Francis Warns http://bit.ly/1x93mSQ
// 9/14/2014, “‘Humanity needs to weep, and this is the time to weep,’ he said. ‘Even today, after the second failure of another world war, perhaps one can speak of a third war, one fought piecemeal, with crimes, massacres, destruction,’ he said”
WorldPublicForum, Akeel Bilgrami: Identity and the Clash of Civilisations http://bit.ly/1CNgSyU
// 9/10/2014, Wikipedia, on Said: “Edward Wadie Said (Arabic pronunciation: [wรฆdiหส• sรฆส•iหd]; Arabic: ุฅุฏูˆุงุฑุฏ ูˆุฏูŠุน ุณุนูŠุฏ, Idwฤrd Wadฤซสฟ Saสฟฤซd; 1 November 1935 โ€“ 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian American literary theorist and public intellectual who helped found the critical-theory field of postcolonialism.”
“As a cultural critic, Said is best known for the 1978 book Orientalism. In it, he analyses the cultural representations that are the basis of Orientalism, a term he redefined to refer to the West’s patronizing perceptions and depictions of Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societiesโ€”’the East’.”
“Orientalism concluded that Western writing about the Orient depicts it as an irrational, weak, and feminised Other, an existential condition contrasted with the rational, strong, and masculine West.”
“[F]or much of the time throughout the period of the Crusades, there was indeed an exemplification of what Saidโ€™s first remark suggests: a dialog and exchange even as there is a clash.”
“All that changed with Napoleonโ€™s campaigns in Egypt and the British conquest of India. Now, the health of hostility, which I just described, was eroded and a quite different tenor of relations developed with condescension and feelings of superiority bred on colonial attitudes on the one side and a feeling of defensiveness and resentment bred upon defeat and the loss of autonomy on the other. For this sort of relation the term ‘clash’ is a complete misnomer for that would mean a conquest is being passed off as a clash. And since these attitudes characterize the relations between the West and Islam to this day, it is a self-serving misdiagnosis of the present situation for Huntington, and those influenced by him, to describe the current situation as ‘a clash.'”
“…economic arrangements that are materially exploitative…” “And so it remains a conquest, passing itself off as a clash.” “Whatever it is that one has, one does not have a dialog with a master.”
“Identities are most obviously formed under conditions of demoralization…”
“Islam becomes a source of collective comfort, inspires a sense of autonomy and self-respect, and sometimes provides a source and site of mobilization with a declared ‘anti-imperialist’ thrust.”
“So, both triumphalism [Scotland, Israel] and feelings of defeat generate identities, no doubt for very different reasons.”
“…Amartya Sen has made much of this in his recent book Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny (2006).”
“…class is more fundamental than these other categories of gender, race, and caste”
“If such gains that have been made in the areas of race, gender, and caste politics had undermined capital and the corporate domination of the political economies in the societies in which the gains were made, then they would never have been allowed.” [emph mine]
LATimes, Jonah Goldberg: Prepare for a long war against the Islamic State http://lat.ms/1to6IBU// 8/11/2014
NYT, John Mearsheimer: Getting Ukraine Wrong http://nyti.ms/1BeFOv4
// 3/13/2014, “[T]he United States, which has been unable to leave the Cold War behind, has treated Russia as a potential threat since the early 1990s and ignored its protests about NATOโ€™s expansion and its objections to Americaโ€™s plan to build missile defense systems in Eastern Europe.”
โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ
Dartmouth, Edward Said [ColumbiaU]: Essay: Reflections on Exile [pdf] http://bit.ly/1wPRmWw
// 2002, quoting Hugh of St Victor, a 12th Century monk from Saxony: “The man who finds his homeland sweet is still a practiced beginner; he to whom every soil is as his native one is already strong; but he is perfect to whom the whole world is as a foreign land. The tender soul has fixed his love on one spot in the world; the strong man has extended his love to all places; but the perfect man has extinguished his.” p. 147

“Hugo [of St Victor] twice makes it clear that the ‘strong’ or ‘perfect’ man achieves independence or detachment by working through attachments; not by rejecting them…. What is true of all exile is not that home or love of home are lost but that loss is inherent in the very existence of both.”Regard experiences as if they are about to disappear. What is it that anchors the in reality? What would you save of them? Only someone who has achieved independence and detachment, someone whose homeland is ‘sweet’ but whose circumstances make it impossible to recapture this sweetness can answer these questions. (Such a person would also find it impossible to derive satisfaction from substitutes furnished by illusion or dogma.)”There is also a particular sense of achievement in acting as if one were at home wherever one happens to be.”

Edward W. Said: Reflections on Exile and Other Essays (Convergences: Inventories of the Present) [book] http://amzn.to/1vi35HV including “Clash of Definitions”
// 2002

NYT, Martha Nussbaum: Review of Reflections on Exile and Other Literary and Cultural Essays: The End of Orthodoxy โ€“ For Edward Said, exile means a critical distance from all cultural identities http://nyti.ms/13Ac4xo
// 2/18/2001

TheGuardian, Maya Jaggi [UK]: Review: Reflections on Exile and Other Literary and Cultural Essays: The Edward Said Reader http://bit.ly/1xpaX1A
// 12/1/2001, Edward Said: “arguably the most influential intellectual of our time”
“Palestinian-American, professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University, and the most persuasive voice in the west for Palestinian self-determination”
“His essay ‘The Clash of Definitions’ should be read by anyone interested in the intellectual history of the present ‘war on terrorism’ and its unstable elision into a war on Islam.”

“As Said points out: ‘What is described as ‘Islam’ [in Europe and the US] belongs to the discourse of Orientalism, a construction fabricated to whip up feelings of hostility and antipathy against a part of the world that happens to be of strategic importance.’ The simplistic ascription of ‘Muslim rage’ to those supposedly resentful of western modernity makes economic and political problems appear timeless and intractable.”

“‘Seeing the world as a foreign land makes possible originality of vision,’ writes Said, for whom the exile’s predicament is ‘as close as we come in the modern era to tragedy’.”

“While ‘the very idea of identity involves fantasy, manipulation, invention, construction’, seeing civilisations as clashing monoliths obscures their silent exchange and dialogue, hybridity and mingling. ‘There are no insulated cultures or civilisations,’ Said writes. ‘The more insistent we are on separation, the more inaccurate we are about ourselves and others.'”

“‘American intellectuals,’ he says, ‘owe it to our country to fight the coarse anti-intellectualism, bullying, injustice, and provincialism that disfigure its career as the last superpower.’ It is not least his work against separatism and artificial barriers, or the notion of ‘us versus them’, that makes Said a crucial and persuasive reader of the world.”

MEF/UMassAmherst, Edward Said (ColumbiaU): The Myth of ‘The Clash of Civilizations‘ [transcript] http://bit.ly/1CNh29v
// 1998

Foreign Affairs, Samuel P Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations? http://fam.ag/1HNrxYt
// Summer 1993



Blog Stats

  • 364,670 hits

Google Translate

Thank you, everyone โ™กโ™คโ™ก

๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ด ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ง ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฒ ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ผ

โ™ค Blog Structure (๎Š= update)